- Mouth – points forward.
- Nostril – smell and taste (closely intertwined) is accomplished in the nasal openings, mouth and head.
- Eye – almost spherical in shape, selective near/far focus – eye structure suggests fish can see in colour.
- Lateral line – line of scales with pores – senses motion in water, extremely sensitive / enables fish to control swimming.
- Dorsal fin.
- Caudal fin or tail – many shapes.
- Gonopodium – modified anal fin of all live-bearing toothcarps – used to introduce sperm to the female – has five rays.
- Pelvic (ventral) fin – paired “legs” – used for stability in the water.
- Pectoral fin – paired “arms” – used for fine movement backward and forward.
- Operculum (gill cover) – pumps water over gills for gas exchange.
- Caudal peduncle – supports the caudal fin.
- Fin rays – fin support structure.
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